Minggu, 02 September 2012

Bukti Penulisan Nama Ishak Sebagai Anak Tunggal

Sebenarnya dengan analisis kontekstual, kesesuaian antar ayat/perikop, benang merah PL & PB, sudah memberikan tingkat akurasi yang tinggi dibanding hanya terfokus pada satu dua kata saja. Berdasarkan manuscript kuno & berbagai referensi catatan sejarah lainnya terbukti yang dikorbankan tertulis "Ishak" bukan "Ismael". Seandainya terjadi perubahan dari Ismail ke Ishak mereka yang menuduhnya harus mengajukan bukti tandingan!

Mari kita lihat bukti-bukti yg melimpah ini:

The Septuagint or LXX, terjemahan Yunani dari PL Ibrani diterjemahkan sekitar abad ke-3 SM. Mencatat Kej 22:2 adalah Ishak (Ισαακ)
“καὶ ειπεν Λαβὲ τὸν υιόν σου τὸν αγαπητόν, ὸν ηγάπησας, τὸν Ισαακ, καὶ πορεύθητι εις τὴν γην τὴν υψηλὴν καὶ ανένεγκον αυτὸν εκει εις ολοκάρπωσιν εφ’ ὲν των ορέων, ων άν σοι είπω.”

The Dead Sea Scrolls (Naskah Laut Mati) berasal abad 2 s/d tahun 68 M. Salah satu gulungan disebut 4Q225, menulis Kej 22:2
And [G]od said [to Abra]ham, ‘Take your son, Isaac, [your] only one […] [whom] you [love] and offer him up to [Me] as a burnt offering upon one of the [high] mountains [which I will point out] to you.’

Bukti dari Naskah Laut Mati ini sangat penting karena sejak abad 1 s/d abad 20 tidak ada satu orang yang pernah menyentuh naskah ini, apalagi merubahnya! Dan naskah kuno ini memiliki tingkat kesesuaian yang sangat tinggi dengan PL masa kini.

Perjanjian Baru ditulis pada abad 1
Was not our ancestor Abraham considered righteous for what he did when he offered his son Isaac on the altar?” (Yakobus 2:21).
By faith Abraham, when he was tested, offered up Isaac, and he who had received the promises offered up his only begotten son, of whom it was said, ‘In Isaac your seed shall be called’” (Ibrani 11:17-18).

Talmud-Sanhedrin 89b yang disusun sekitar tahun 500 M:
“‘and the boy grew up and was weaned, and Abraham made a great banquet on the day that Isaac was weaned’ (Gen. 21:8). At that time Satan said to God: ‘Master of the Universe! You have blessed this old man at the age of one hundred years with offspring. Yet amidst all [the bounty of] this banquet that he prepared, was there not one pigeon or fowl for him to sacrifice before You?’ He replied: ‘All that he did he did only for the sake of his son. Still, were I to say to him, ‘Sacrifice your son before Me,’ he would sacrifice him at once.’ Hence it says thereafter, ‘And [after these words] God tested Abraham.’”

Targums/Targunim, Terjemahan Aramik dari PL Ibrani ditulis tahun 200 SM s/d 200 M.
Targum Pseudo-Jonathan, “the Word of the Lord at once tried Abraham, and said to him, Abraham! And he said, Behold me. [JERUSALEM. And it was after these things that the Lord tried Abraham with the tenth trial, and said to him, Abraham! And he said, Behold me.] And He said, Take now thy son, thy only one whom thou lovest, Izhak, and go into the land of worship, and offer him there, a whole burnt offering, upon one of the mountains that I will tell thee.”
Targum Onkelos, “And it was after these things that the Lord tempted Abraham; and He said to him, Abraham! And he said, Behold, I am. And He said, Take now thy son, thy only, whom thou lovest, Izhak, and go into the land of worship, and offer him before Me there, a burnt offering, upon one of the mountains which I will tell thee.”

Flavius Josephus seorang sejarawan Yahudi sekitar tahun 93 M menulis dalam Antiquities of the Jews 1.13.1:
Now Abraham greatly loved Isaac…Abraham…obtained by the will of God: who being desirous to make an experiment of Abraham’s religious disposition towards himself, appeared to him, and enumerated all the blessings he had bestowed on him; how he had made him superior to his enemies; and that his son Isaac, who was the principal part of his present happiness, was derived from him; and he said that he required this son of his as a sacrifice and holy oblation. Accordingly he commanded him to carry him to the mountain Moriah, and to build an altar, and offer him for a burnt-offering upon it for that this would best manifest his religious disposition towards him, if he preferred what was pleasing to God, before the preservation of his own son.

Midrash Rabbah adalah kumpulan tulisan Rabinik sekitar thn 425 M:
Midrash Rabbah-Genesis XXXIX:9, “Take now thy son (ib. XXII, 2)-‘which one?’ ‘Thine only son.’ ‘Each is the only one of his mother?’ ‘Whom thou lovest.’ ‘I love them both: are there limits to one’s emotions?’ Said He to him: ‘Even Isaac.’
Midrash Rabbah-Genesis LVI:10, “’R. Bibi Rabbah said in R. Johanan’s name: He said to Him: ‘Sovereign of the Universe! When Thou didst order me, ‘Take now thy son, thine only son’ (ib. 2), I could have answered, ‘Yesterday Thou didst promise me, For in Isaac shall seed be called to thee (ib. XXI, 12), and now Thou sayest, ‘Take now thy son,’ etc.’ Yet Heaven forfend! I did not do this, but suppressed my feelings of compassion in order to do Thy will.

Book of Judith 8:25-26 (sekitar abad 2 SM):
In spite of everything let us give thanks to the Lord our God, who is putting us to the test as he did our ancestors. Remember what he did with Abraham, and how he tested Isaac.

4th Book of Maccabees 7:12-14, 13:12, 16:19-20 (sekitar tahun 63 SM s/d 70 M):
Eleazar, though being consumed by fire, remained unmoved in his reason…and by reason like that of Isaac, he rendered the many- headed rack ineffective….the father by whose hand Isaac would have submitted to being slain for the sake of religion….you ought to endure any suffering for the sake of God. For his sake also our father Abraham was zealous to sacrifice his son Isaac, the ancestor of our nation; and when Isaac saw his father’s hand wielding a knife and descending upon him, he did not cower.

Book of Jubilees 17:16 (sekitar tahun 135 s/d 105 SM):
Then the [Satan-like] angel Mastema came and said before God, ‘Behold, Abraham loves Isaac his son, and he delights in him above all else. Tell him to offer him as a sacrifice on the altar. Then You will see if he will carry out this command, and You will know if he is faithful in everything through which You test him.’

Epistle of Barnabas (Surat Barnabas) 7:2-3 (sekitar tahun 80 s/d 120 M):
Moreover, when [Jesus was] fixed to the cross, He had given Him to drink vinegar and gall. Hearken how the priests of the people gave previous indications of this. His commandment having been written, the Lord enjoined, that whosoever did not keep the fast should be put to death, because He also Himself was to offer in sacrifice for our sins the vessel of the Spirit, in order that the type established in Isaac when he was offered upon the altar might be fully accomplished.”

1st Clement 31:2-3 (sekitar tahun 90 s/d 100 M):
On what account was our father Abraham blessed? Was it not that he wrought righteousness and truth through faith? Isaac, with confidence, knowing the future, willingly became a sacrifice.

Quadratus, Bishop of Athens, Remains of the Second and Third Centuries, V. From the Catena on Genesis:
In place of Isaac the just, a ram appeared for slaughter, in order that Isaac might be liberated from his bonds. The slaughter of this animal redeemed Isaac from death. In like manner, the Lord, being slain, saved us; being bound, He loosed us; being sacrificed, He redeemed us. For the Lord was a lamb, like the ram which Abraham saw caught in the bush…was led up to the hill to be slain, as was Isaac by his father.

Fragments from the Lost Writings of Irenaeus (130 s/d 202 M), LIII-LIV:
With regard to Christ, the law and the prophets and the evangelists have proclaimed that [it was] He…who guided Abraham; who was bound along with Isaac …He guided Abraham; was bound along with Isaac.

Melito of Sardis (165 s/d 175 M), From the Catena on Genesis Ch. V. :
In place of Isaac the just, a ram appeared for slaughter, in order that Isaac might be liberated from his bonds. The slaughter of this animal redeemed Isaac from death…[Jesus] carried the cross on His shoulders when He was led up to the hill to be slain, as was Isaac by his father…Accordingly there lies Isaac before us, with his feet bound like a ram, his father standing by, with the knife all bare in his hand, not shrinking from shedding the blood of his son.

Clement of Alexandria (192 s/d 202 M), The Stromata, or Miscellanies, Book II, Ch. V.:
Isaac, God in a figure selected for Himself as a consecrated sacrifice, to be a type to us of the economy of salvation.

Irenaeus of Lyons (175 s/d 185 M), Against Heresies / Adversus Haereses, Book IV, Ch. V:4:
Righteously also do we, possessing the same faith as Abraham, and taking up the cross as Isaac did the wood follow Him…For Abraham, according to his faith, followed the command of the Word of God, and with a ready mind delivered up, as a sacrifice to God.

Tertullian (150 s/d 220 M):
Against Marcion, Book III, Ch. 18:
Isaac, when he was given up by his father as an offering, himself carried the wood for his own death. By this act he even then was setting forth the death of Christ, who was destined by His Father as a sacrifice, and carried the cross whereon He suffered.
An Answer to the Jews, Ch. 1:
before this temporal sabbath, there was withal an eternal sabbath foreshown and foretold…Abraham, in observance of the sabbath, offered Isaac his son…. Isaac, when led by his father as a victim, and himself bearing his own ‘wood,’ was even at that early period pointing to Christ’s death; conceded, as He was, as a victim by the Father; carrying, as He did, the ‘wood’ of His own passion….This ‘wood,’ again, Isaac the son of Abraham personally carried for his own sacrifice, when God had enjoined that he should be made a victim to Himself.

Philo of Alexandria On Abraham 32-36 (20 SM s/d 50 M):
So Isaac was saved, since God returned the gift of him and used the offering which piety rendered to Him to repay the offerer, while for Abraham the action, though not followed by the intended ending, was complete and perfect, and the record of it as such stands graven not only in the sacred books but in the minds of the readers.

Ambrose Bishop of Milan (340 s/d 397 M): 
On the Duties of the Clergy:
Book I. Chapter I. 66, “Isaac feared the Lord, as was indeed but natural in the son of Abraham; being subject also to his father to such an extent that he would not avoid death in opposition to his father’s will.”
Book III. Chapter I. 79, “In the case of Isaac we have an example, for the Lord appointed a ram to be offered up instead of him.
Concerning Virgins, to Marcellina, His Sister
Book I. Chapter I, “Isaac went to the altar of God as a victim of his father’s piety.

Aphrahat/Aphraates (280 s/d 367 M), Demonstration XXI—Of Persecution, 5:
Abraham built the altar, when he bound upon it Isaac his son.”
Athanasius (296 s/d 373 M):
Four Discourses Against the Arians—Discourse I, 443:
the Word, with a view of conveying to Abraham the idea of ‘Only-begotten,’ says, ‘Offer thy son thy well-beloved;’ but it is plain to any one that Isaac was the only son from Sara.

The Festal Letters, and Their Index—Chronicon Athanasianum, I. Festal Letters, Letter I., 522, 8-9:
For thus the patriarch Abraham rejoiced not to see his own day, but that of the Lord ; and thus looking forward ‘he saw it, and was glad.’ And when he was tried, by faith he offered up Isaac, and sacrificed his
only-be-gotten son…The patriarch was tried, through Isaac, not however that he was sacrificed, but He who was pointed out in Isaiah; ‘He shall be led as a lamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before her shearers he shall be speechless’…For the sacrifice was not properly the setting to rights of Isaac, but of Abraham who also offered, and by that was tried

Basil the Great (329 s/d 379 M), 
De Spiritu Sancto, Chapter I: 32. “Abraham did not spare his own son; then even the passion of the Lord would not be glorious, because a sheep typified the offering instead of Isaac.
Clement of Alexandria (150-215 M), The Paedagogus—The Instructor, Book I., Chapter I:
The King, then, who is Christ…is Isaac (for the narrative may be interpreted otherwise), who is a type of the Lord, a child as a son; for he was the son of Abraham, as Christ the Son of God, and a sacrifice as the Lord, but he was not immolated as the Lord. Isaac only bore the wood of the sacrifice, as the Lord the wood of the cross.

Clement of Rome (0-100 M), Letter to the Corinthians, Chapter 31:
For what reason was our father Abraham blessed? Was it not because he wrought righteousness and truth through faith? Isaac, with perfect confidence, as if knowing what was to happen, cheerfully yielded himself as a sacrifice.

Cyprian of Carthage (200-258 M):
The Treatises of Cyprian, Treatise I, 10 & 15:
Abraham, believing God, and first of all instituting the root and foundation of faith, when tried in respect of his son, does not hesitate nor delay, but obeys the commands of God with all the patience of devotion. And Isaac, prefigured as the likeness of the Lord’s victim, when he is presented by his father for immolation, is found patient….That men are tried by God for this purpose, that they may be proved. In Genesis: ‘And God, tempted Abraham, and said to him, Take thy only son whom thou lovest, Isaac, and go into the high land, and offer him there as a burnt-offering on one of the mountains of which I will tell thee.’

Treatises Attributed to Cyprian on Questionable Authority—On the Public Shows, 29:
If thou art righteous, and believest in God, why fearest thou to shed thy blood for Him whom thou knowest to have so often suffered for thee? In Isaiah He was sawn asunder, in Abel He was slain, in Isaac He was offered up, in Joseph He was sold into slavery, in man He was crucified.

Cyril of Jerusalem (315-386 M), Catechetical Lectures, Lecture V., Of Faith, 5 (commenting on Hebrews 11:1-2):
At present let us be content with Abraham only, as one of the examples from the Old Testament, seeing that we have been made his sons through faith. He was justified not only by works, but also by faith…after he had gained his son, he was commanded to offer him up, although he had heard the word, In Isaac shall thy seed be called, he proceeded to offer up his son, his only son, to God, believing that God is able to raise up even from the dead.

Ephraim the Syrian (306-373 M):
Hymns on the Nativity:
Sarah had lulled Isaac, who as a slave bare the Image of the King his Master on his shoulders, even the sign of His Cross; yea, on his hands were bandages and sufferings, a type of the nails.
Hymns on the Nativity XIII, 29 and Hymns for the Feast of Epiphany II, 29:
In the twenty-fifth year, let Isaac praise the Son, for by His goodness he was rescued upon the Mount from the knife, and in his stead there was the victim, the type of the Lamb for the slaughter. The mortal escaped, and He that quickens all died. Blessed be His offering!

Perlu diingat satu-satunya yang mencatat bahwa yang dikorbankan Ismail adalah Injil Barnabas. Tetapi injil harus dibedakan dengan Surat Barnabas & Kisah Barnabas (Apokriph). Tidak ada satupun bapa-bapa gereja yang pernah mengutip injil Barnabas ini. Dari analisis kritis terhadap injil ini terbukti injil Barnabas ditulis pada sekitar abad 13 s/d 14. 

Kesimpulan berdasarkan bukti-bukti yang melimpah ini bahwa yang dikorbankan adalah Ishak!

In Love of the Christ
Jimmy Jeffry

2 komentar:

  1. anda salah besar Bosss.... jelas jelas yang di korbankan adalah domba jantan yang tanduknya tersangkut...... sudah ga usal ngeyel